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Handheld laser welding machine aluminum alloy welding skills
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Handheld laser welding machine aluminum alloy welding skills

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-03-23      Origin: Site

  Aluminum and its aluminum alloys play a pivotal role in various materials used in modern engineering technology. The annual output is second only to steel, ranking first in non-ferrous metals. If aluminum alloys first appeared in the aviation industry, then in recent decades, in addition to the aviation industry, aluminum and aluminum alloys have been widely used in aerospace, automobiles, ships and even home decoration.


  Aluminum alloy welding refers to the welding process of aluminum alloy materials. Due to its high strength and light weight, aluminum alloy is the main welding process of manual TIG welding, automatic TIG welding and MIG welding in the industry. Among them, argon arc welding is the most widely used one. However, with the development of the industry, traditional argon arc welding has been unable to meet the growing processing needs of users in some fields.

Aluminum alloy welding

The advantages, disadvantages and applications of aluminum alloy laser welding are analyzed below:


01Advantages:


Laser welding aluminum alloy adopts swing laser welding, no auxiliary materials are added, the welding equipment is simple, no consumables are required, and it is easy to automate.


02 Disadvantages:


If the requirements for the welding film are high, the welding seam is easy to sag; the welding start and end points are easy to focus; the welding process is generally stable, and welding defects are prone to occur.


03 Case:


Building decoration industry - 5 series aluminum alloy door frame welding

Aluminum alloy door frame laser welding


  Due to the inherent physical properties of aluminum alloys, such as low laser absorption, low boiling point of alloying elements, high thermal conductivity, high thermal expansion coefficient, wide solidification temperature range, high solidification shrinkage, low viscosity, and high hydrogen absorption in the liquid state, etc. Defects such as pores and thermal cracks are prone to occur during the laser welding process.

  Among them, porosity is the most likely form of defect in the process of aluminum alloy laser welding. It will destroy the compactness of the weld metal, weaken the effective cross-sectional area of the weld, and reduce the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the weld. Therefore, effective measures must be taken. Measures to prevent porosity and improve the internal quality of welds.


  Laser fusion welding method for suppressing porosity


01Suppress welding porosity by pre-welding surface treatment


  Surface treatment before welding is an effective method to control metallographic porosity of aluminum alloy laser welds. Typically, surface treatment methods include physical and mechanical cleaning and chemical cleaning.


  By comparison, the chemical treatment on the surface of the test plate (metal cleaning agent cleaning-water-washing-alkali-washing-water-pickling-water-washing-drying) has the best effect. Among them, 25NaH (sodium hydroxide) solution was used to remove the surface thickness of the material, and 20% HNO3 (nitric acid) + 2% (hydrogen fluoride) aqueous solution was acid washed to neutralize the residual alkali solution. If the test board stays for a long time after treatment, wipe it with absolute alcohol before soldering.


02Suppress welding porosity through welding process parameters


  The formation of weld pores is not only related to the quality of the surface treatment of the weldment, but also to the welding process parameters. The influence of welding parameters on the porosity of the weld is mainly reflected in the penetration depth of the weld, that is, the influence of the back-to-width ratio of the weld on the porosity.


  It can be seen from the test that when the back-to-width ratio of the weld seam is R>0.6, the concentrated distribution of the chain pores in the weld seam can be effectively improved. When the back-to-width ratio R>0.8, the existence of large pores in the weld can be effectively improved. And to a large extent eliminates the residual porosity in the weld.


03Suppress welding porosity by correct selection of shielding gas and flow rate


  The choice of shielding gas directly affects the quality, efficiency and cost of welding. In the laser welding process, the correct blowing of the shielding gas can effectively reduce the welding seam porosity.

Aluminum alloy welding1

  Ar (Argon) and He (Helium) are used to protect the weld surface. During the laser welding of aluminum alloys, the ionization degree of Ar and He to the laser is different, resulting in different weld formation. The results show that the overall porosity of the weld obtained by selecting Ar as the shielding gas is smaller than that obtained when He is selected as the shielding gas.


  At the same time, it should also be noted that if the gas flow is too small (10L/min), a large amount of plasma generated by welding cannot be blown off, which will make the molten pool unstable and increase the probability of porosity formation.


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